introduction to logic circuits & logic design with verilog

These are used in bit compression applications. A logic circuit is a circuit that executes a processing or controlling function in a computer. 2019-03-27 Introduction to Logic Circuits & Logic Design with VHDL, 2nd edition 2018-01-09 [ PDF ] Advanced Digital Logic Design Using VHDL , State Machines, and Synthesis for FPGA's 2017-10-17 [ PDF ] Fundamentals of Digital and Computer Design with VHDL Arduino Sensors A combinational circuit comprises of input variables, logic gates and output variables. Show all. This textbook for courses in Digital Systems Design introduces students to the fundamental hardware used in modern computers. In the above figure, there are n input variables and hence there will be 2n possible combinations of bits at the input. List Price $89.00 USD. TTL and CMOS logic gate circuits are 2 typical types. So the result of above generalized combinational logic circuit can be expressed by m Boolean expressions. About the authors. Introduction Logic gates are electronic circuits that can be used to implement the most elementary logic expressions, also known as Boolean expressions. 8.1.3.3 Combinational Logic. Part 1 . Written the way the material is taught, enabling a bottom-up approach to learning which culminates with a high-level of learning, with a solid foundation. It's possible to make this a lot more complicated, but we won't do that here! Introduction to Logic Circuits: Synthesis using AND, OR, and NOT gates: LECT04.pdf: Lecture 5: Introduction to Logic Circuits: Design Examples: LECT05.pdf: Lecture 6: Introduction to Logic Circuits: CAD Tools and VHDL: LECT06.pdf: Lecture 7: Optimized Implementation of Logic Functions: Karnaugh Maps and Minimum Sum-of-Product Forms: LECT07.pdf : Lecture 8: Optimized Implementation of Logic … … Pages: … Minimizing the Boolean expressions of various output variables. Free Preview. Topics are presented in a manner which builds foundational knowledge before moving onto advanced topics. Soldering Iron Kits EENG115/INFE115 Introduction to Logic Design . Peter Wilson, H. Alan Mantooth, in Model-Based Engineering for Complex Electronic Systems, 2013. In other words the output depends on a SEQUENCE of … This book can be used for either a sequence of two courses consisting of an introduction to logic circuits (Chapters 1-7) followed by logic design (Chapters 8-13) or a single, accelerated course that uses the early chapters as reference material. - … Once the tutorial is complete you should be able to implement basic digital circuits. Coverage includes both the classical approach to digital system design (i.e., pen and paper) in addition to the modern hardware description language (HDL) design approach (computer-based). He has been honored with numerous teaching awards including the American Society of Engineering Education Section Outstanding Teaching Award, the MSU President’s Excellence in Teaching Award, the MSU Teaching Innovation Award, the MSU Excellence in Online Teaching Award, and the MSU Provost’s Award for Excellence in Teaching and Scholarship. By Ankit Negi Aug 27, 2019 0. Electronics Component Kits Beginners 1.2.1 Introduction to Combinational Logic Design: Seatbelt Circuit In this activity I used the Circuit Design Software (CDS) to build and test combinational logic circuits. 2019 Quick Start Guide to Verilog. Coverage includes both the classical approach to digital system design (i.e., pen and paper) in addition to the … Full adder and multiplexer are two examples of combinational circuits. 1). Introduction to Logic Circuits & Logic Design with Verilog [LaMeres, Brock J.] This book presents both the classical approach to digital system design (i.e., pen and paper) in addition to the modern hardware description language (HDL) design approach (computer-based). Authors (view affiliations) Brock J. LaMeres; Textbook. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. In some applications, it is required to interface two digital blocks of different coding systems. The logic gates are the fundamental building blocks of a combinational circuit. INTRODUCTION TO LOGIC CIRCUITS . Raspberry Pi Starter Kits •Synthesis of digital circuits •Introduction to CAD tools •Introduction to VHDL. Buy the eBook. In these circuits the output depends, not only on the combination of logic states at its inputs, but also on the logic states that existed previously. The logic gates are the fundamental building blocks of a combinational circuit. Softcover … The Greek philosopher Aristotle founded a system of logic based on only two types of propositions: true and false. An Introduction to Logic Circuit Testing provides a detailed coverage of techniques for test generation and testable design of digital electronic circuits/systems. This is core course of Electrical and Elecronic Engineering and Information System Engineering that presents basic tools for the design of digital circuits. Logic Circuits. Course Content • Learning Outcomes for “EE261 – Introduction to Logic Circuits” At the end of this course the student should be able to: 1) Understand the difference between analog and digital signals. Best Solar Panel Kits The concept of memory is then introduced through the construction of an SR latch and then a D flip-flop. It accepts the single input and distributes it to multiple outputs. Introduction. Led Christmas Lights If the circuit is more complex, number of gates required is more and also it requires more number of wires in between them. INTRODUCTION TO LOGIC CIRCUITS. Top Robot Vacuum Cleaners These rules, taken together, form the basis of Boolean algebra, which you studied in depth in ELEC 2200 Digital Logic Circuits. These arithmetic functionalities of the combinational circuits include addition, subtraction, multiplication, etc. Your email address will not be published. The term combination logic means combining of two or more logic gates to form a required function where the output at a given time depends only on the input. Logic Circuit (LC) is a logic simulator. Arduino Starter Kit ...you'll find more products in the shopping cart. Springer is part of, Please be advised Covid-19 shipping restrictions apply. Hence the word electricity is derived from the word electrons. The objectives of this experiment include: Objectives • Review basic principles of digital logic … Brief Introduction to Circuits by Unknown Basics. Language: english. Happy Holidays—Our $/£/€30 Gift Card just for you, and books ship free! This is a brief and simple understanding of what a circuit is and the usage of it. This textbook for courses in Digital Systems Design introduces students to the fundamental hardware used in modern computers. Introduction to Logic Circuits & Logic Design with Verilog. 12. It seems that you're in USA. Drone Kits Beginners The only pre-requisite is algebra, so it can be taken by college freshman or sophomore students or even used in Advanced Placement courses in high school. This book can be used for either a sequence of two courses consisting of an introduction to logic circuits (Chapters 1-7) followed by logic design (Chapters 8-13) or a single, accelerated course that uses the early chapters as reference material. It includes a short example of how to run some VHDL (VHSIC Hardware Description Language) code using an online tool. Required fields are marked *, Best Rgb Led Strip Light Kits Here are the basics, presented as simply as possible. Written the way the material is taught, enabling a bottom-up approach to learning which culminates with a high-level of learning, with a solid foundation ; Emphasizes examples from which students can learn: contains a … Some of these converters are binary to gray code, gray to binary, BCD to excess-3 code, Excess-3 to BCD code and seven segment code converter circuits. Introduction to Logic Circuits & Logic Design with Verilog [LaMeres, Brock J.] Verilog specification of the circuit in Figure 2.12. Redstone Logic. This book is designed to match the way the material is actually taught in the classroom. Combinational logic circuits can be classified as digital logic circuits that do not have any storage elements. Brock J. LaMeres is an Associate Professor in the … This circuit implements logical operations on information to process it. The logic circuits discussed in Digital Electronics Module 4 had output states that depended on the particular combination of logic states at the input connections to the circuit. 47 Figure 2.47. Please be advised Covid-19 shipping restrictions apply. This book can be used for either a sequence of two courses consisting of an introduction to logic circuits (Chapters 1-7) followed by logic design (Chapters 8-13) or a single, accelerated course that uses the early chapters as reference material. This book can be used for either a sequence of two courses consisting of an introduction to logic circuits (Chapters 1-7) followed by logic design (Chapters 8-13) or a single, accelerated course that uses the early chapters as reference material. Introduction . His bivalent (two-mode) definition of truth led to the four foundational laws of logic: the Law of Identity (A is A); the Law of Non-contradiction (A is not non-A); the Law of the Excluded Middle (either A or non-A); and the Law of Rational Inference. Some of the combinational circuits used for these operations are Half- adder, Full-adder, Half-subtractors, Full subtractors, Adder-subtractors, Comparators, PLDs (Programmable Logic Devices), etc. A sort of sheep in wolves clothing! Introduction to Logic Circuits & Logic Design with Verilog. Arduino Robot Kits on Amazon.com. 46 Figure 2.46. then how digital logic functions are constructed using those gates. 2019 Quick Start Guide to VHDL. Logic circuits … Other essential data transmission circuits include encoders and decoders. In this lesson, we will learn how, given a specification, to design the corresponding logic circuit using basic logic gates. Breadboard Kits Beginners 18 Mentions; 2m Downloads; Buying options. The aim of this article is to provide a brief introduction to logic circuits and some popular tools for designing and testing them. 6.1 Introduction. Best Gaming Monitors, Differences between Analog Circuits and Digital Circuits, Introduction to FPGA | Structure, Components, Applications, Applications of Diodes | Rectifier, Clipper, Reverse…. A binary switch. Introduction to Relay Logic Control - Symbols, Working and Examples power. This book can be used for either a sequence of two courses consisting of an introduction to logic circuits (Chapters 1-7) followed by logic design (Chapters 8-13) or a single, accelerated course that uses the early chapters as reference material. There should be always a limitation on the driving capability of the gates. It serves as a building block in many disciplines that utilize data of digital nature like digital control, data communication, digital computers etc. 12 are combinational logic circuits and could be presented in Chap. An encoder digital circuit converts an active input signal into a coded output signal as reverse operation of the decoder. Brock J. LaMeres is an Associate Professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Montana State University (MSU). Language: english. circuits in Chap. This incremental, just-in-time presentation of material allows the book to follow … Identification and determination of number of available input variables and required output variables. 12 are combinational logic circuits and could be presented in Chap. His research interests are in the area of digital systems and engineering education. By using the combination of logic gates more complex combinational circuits can be implemented such as multiplexers and de-multiplexers, compara… Use Module 5 to learn about digital circuits that use SEQUENTIAL LOGIC. Year: 2017. For this reason these circuits are called combinational logic circuits. This book can be used for either a sequence of two courses consisting of an introduction to logic circuits (Chapters 1-7) followed by logic design (Chapters 8-13) or a single, accelerated course that uses the early chapters as reference material. Coverage includes both the classical approach to digital system design (i.e., pen and paper) in addition to the modern hardware description … Diy Digital Clock Kits A decoder logic circuit converts n-bit binary input code into 2n output lines. The logic circuits discussed in Digital Electronics Module 4 had output states that depended on the particular combination of logic states at the input connections to the circuit. Introduction to Logic Circuits & Logic Design with VHDL This textbook introduces readers to the fundamental hardware used in modern computers. Digital Multimeter Kit Reviews The three basic digital logic gates are: AND Gate. It is the flow electrons. By a Boolean expression of input variables, each output is expressed. The most commonly used combinational circuits are multiplexers and de-multiplexers. For this reason these circuits are called combinational logic circuits. We all know about electricity. Best Robot Dog Toys Logic gates are the basic building block of digital circuits. Add to cart Buy … Introduction to TTL and CMOS Logic Gate Circuits. But such circuits also form LaMeres received his Ph.D. in electrical engineering from the University of Colorado, Boulder in December of 2005, his MSEE from the University of Colorado, Colorado Springs in May of 2001, and his BSEE from Montana State University, Bozeman in December of 1998. Electric Lawn Mowers • Device numbering. NOT Gate. The experiments in this laboratory exercise will provide an introduction to digital electronic circuits. Each section addresses a specific learning outcome that the learner should be able to “do” after its completion. Introduction to CAD tools • Synthesis –process of generating a logic circuit from an initial specification given in schematic diagram or HDL. Raspberry Pi LCD Display Kits Now, the simplified Boolean expression for the above truth table for getting the output Y is obtained by using K-map simplification as, By implementing the above Boolean equation we get the logic diagram as. LaMeres is a Senior Member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) and a Registered Professional Engineer in the States of Montana and Colorado. This is a tutorial introduction. 4, the student does not have the necessary background in Chap. Introduction to Logic Circuit. These are basic circuits that you can use to achieve simple tasks. In the given statement there are three input variables and one output variable. VHDL) into a set of logic expressions that describe the logic functions … These are used in data de-multiplexing, digital to analog converters and digital display applications. Logic circuits utilise two values for a given physical quantity (voltage, for example) to denote the Boolean values true and false or 1 and 0 respectively. There are three basic logic gates, namely the OR gate, the AND gate and the NOT gate. A logic … We created a simulation using inputs as a “Seat Belt”, “Key”, “Door”, and the output as the “Buzzer” all on Multisim. These are used in distributors as well as series to parallel converter applications. Introduction In other lessons, we covered basic Boolean logic aspects. These logic circuits are made of various logic gates , by connecting them in certain combinations , in order to produce the required output.Digital logic circuits are mainly classified into two types , sequential logic circuits and combinational logic circuits. A relay logic circuit is a schematic diagram which shows various components, their connections, inputs as well as outputs in a particular fashion. Hence, designing such circuits may be less reliable and time consuming. A multiplexer logic circuit accepts the several data inputs and passes one of them through the output at a time. 4. 3d Printer Kits Buy Online A logic circuit with two modules. LaMeres has published over 80 manuscripts and 2 textbooks in the area of digital systems. The required output data is obtained from this process by transforming the binary information given at the input. We will introduce the most common logic gates in this section, including the AND, OR, XOR, NOT, NOR, and NAND. Number of Illustrations and Tables 58 b/w illustrations, 427 illustrations in colour Topics Circuits and Systems Processor Architectures Logic … LaMeres, Brock J. – It involves compiling or translating the design entry (eg. ISBN 13: 978-3-319-34195-8. To overcome these problems, most of the combinational circuits are available in integrated circuits (ICs) which are extensively used in the design of the digital systems. The number of interconnections between the gates should be minimum and the propagation time should be shortest. Please read our short guide how to send a book to … The digital logic gates are fundamental building blocks of the Digital Circuit. The circuit incorporates relays along with other components such as switches, motors, timers, actuators, contactors etc. This chapter briefly introduces the basic concept of the logic circuits and Verilog HDL, a language for implementing the circuits. 2019 Embedded Systems Design using the MSP430FR2355 LaunchPad™ 2020 Introduction to Logic Circuits & Logic Design with Verilog. This video tutorial provides an introduction into karnaugh maps and combinational logic circuits. This set also uses those gates in combinations to make more complex logic circuits and to demonstrate logic principles. Best Python Books Send-to-Kindle or Email . Read this to learn their structure and features. A logic circuit is a circuit that executes a processing or controlling function in a computer. This textbook introduces readers to the fundamental hardware used in modern computers. Hierarchical Verilog code for the circuit in Figure 2.44. Introduction to Logic Circuits & Logic Design with VHDL. Best Gaming Mouse The author has made this edition more accessible to better meet the needs of today's undergraduate mathematics and philosophy students. • Power vs. But such circuits also form the foundation of many other digital systems where performing … An Introduction to Logic Circuit Testing provides a detailed coverage of techniques for test generation and testable design of digital electronic circuits/systems. This book can be used for either a sequence of two courses consisting of an introduction to logic circuits (Chapters 1-7) followed by logic design (Chapters 8-13) or a single, accelerated course that uses the early chapters as reference material. A combinational circuit can be designed using the following steps. Best Iot Starter Kits With Logic Circuit you can create anything from simple to complex digital circuits. on Amazon.com. (gross), © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Best Gaming Earbuds Best Arduino Books April 5, 1999 14:05 g02-ch2 Sheet number 2 Page number 18 black 18 CHAPTER 2 Introduction to Logic Circuits The study of logic circuits is motivated mostly by their use in digital computers. Introduction to Logic Circuits & Logic Design with Verilog A combinational logic circuit is one in which the present state of the combination of the logic inputs decides the output . Introduction to Logic Circuits 2. d2–d4, d7–d5. This is core course of Electrical and Elecronic Engineering and Information System Engineering that presents basic tools for the design of digital circuits. Logic circuits utilise two values for a given physical quantity (voltage, for example) to denote the Boolean … x = 0 x = 1 (a) Two states of a switch S x (b) Symbol for a switch . April 5, 1999 14:05 g02-ch2 Sheet number 2 Page number 18 black 18 CHAPTER 2 Introduction to Logic Circuits The study of logic circuits is motivated mostly by their use in digital computers. Figure 2.1. A clock is created to be used in a basic state machine design that aims to combine logic circuits with memory. This textbook enables readers to design digital systems using the modern HDL approach while ensuring they have a solid foundation of knowledge of the underlying hardware and theory of their designs. His research has led to novel instructional methods that have been shown to improve student cognition while simultaneously promoting an inclusive learning environment. Prior to joining the MSU faculty, he was an R&D engineer for Hewlett-Packard in Colorado Springs where he designed acquisition systems for electronic test equipment. Speed ... Logic 1 and Logic 0 are a bit more complex that 5V and 0V because these digital ICs are really little analogue circuits posing as ‘Digital’. Oscilloscope Kits Beginners 2.6 Synthesis Using AND, OR, and NOT Gates; 2.7 NAND & NOR Logic Networks; 2.8 Design Examples; 2.9 Introduction to CAD tools; 2.10 Introduction … Edition: 2nd. Please login to your account first; Need help? Solar Light Kits Beginners He has received numerous grants from the National Science Foundation and NASA to study how engineering students learn complex material and how to improve diversity within the field. 2.1 Variables and Functions; 2.2 Inversion; 2.3 Truth tables; 2.4 Logic gates and networks; 2.5 Boolean Algebra . Construction of truth table indicating the relationship between the input and output variables. Introduction to Logic Circuits & Logic Design with Verilog Brock J. LaMeres. While technically the arithmetic circuits in Chap. The logic gates can be defined as simple physical devices used to implement the Boolean function. Best Function Generator Kits 2) Accomplish number system conversions (decimal, binary, octal, hexadecimal). What is a Logic Circuit? The figure below shows the schematic representation of a generalized combinational logic circuit consisting of n input variable and m output variables. Year: 2019. Best Jumper Wire Kits Start Logic Circuit, go to the window start menu, type “Logic Circuit… Authors: LaMeres, Brock J. These logic circuits are formed by connecting one or more logic gates together. Instant PDF download; Readable on all devices; Own it forever; Exclusive offer for individuals only; Buy eBook. Free Preview. Read More So a conversion circuit is used in between such circuits to convert the information. 4 to fully understand the operation of the arithmetic circuitry, so its introduction is postponed. Electronics Books Beginners These logic gats can be wired in variety of ways to perform the particular task. Filed Under: Combinational Logic Cirucits, Your email address will not be published. Best Capacitor Kits Relay logic basically consists of relays wired up in a particular fashion to perform the desired switching operations. Best Gaming Headsets Alternatively, an interconnection of these devices may be found in a shift register, a counter, or in a variety of MSI and LSI packages. By using the combination of logic gates more complex combinational circuits can be implemented such as multiplexers and de-multiplexers, comparators, adders and subtractors, etc. The term combination logic means combining of two or more logic gates to form a required function where the output at a given time depends only on the input. Expressing the input and output variable’s relationship. Best Resistor Kits Figure 2.2. In these circuits … June 22, 2015 By Administrator Leave a Comment. The implementation of the circuit should be in such that , it should have minimum number of gates, having a minimum number of inputs. These basic digital logic gates can be connected in peculiar ways to form other important logic gates. Authors: For hardware implementation of the combinational circuit, the following guidelines are mostly preferred. Digital signals are processed by the digital system which can be built with various logic gates. For minimizing Boolean expressions, various simplification techniques are available so that they reduce the number of gates, hence less implementation cost. Electronics Repair Tool Kit Beginners Introduction to Logic Circuits & Logic Design with Verilog JavaScript is currently disabled, this site works much better if you With the introduction … Logic is much like mathematics in this respect: the so-called “Laws” of logic depend on how we define what a proposition is. A Mathematical Introduction to Logic, Second Edition, offers increased flexibility with topic coverage, allowing for choice in how to utilize the textbook in a course. This circuit implements logical operations on information to process it. Verilog specification of the circuit in Figure 2.34. • Introduction to Logic Families. Logic gates. Chapter 2-3 (a) AND gates (b) OR gates x x x 1 x 2 x n x 1 + + + … (a) Simple connection to a battery S (b) Using a ground connection as the return path Battery Light Power supply S Light x x. 2.6 Synthesis Using AND, OR, and NOT Gates; 2.7 NAND & NOR Logic Networks; 2.8 Design Examples; 2.9 Introduction to CAD tools; 2.10 Introduction … We have a dedicated site for USA. Obtaining the logic diagram by the implementation of minimized Boolean expressions. Use Module 5 to learn about digital circuits that use SEQUENTIAL LOGIC. 45 Figure 2.45. Logic gates are used to perform a logical operation with one or more inputs and generates a logical output. LaMeres has also been granted 13 US patents in the area of digital signal propagation. This is a very basic introduction to logic circuits in Minecraft. Best Waveform Generators Introduction to Logic Circuits. Basic Digital Logic Circuits . Soldering Stations Each output line is activated for only one of the possible combinations of the inputs. This is the simple, effective and traditional method of designing a combinational circuit for small circuit. eBook USD 69.99 Price excludes VAT. Preview. 2.1 Variables and Functions; 2.2 Inversion; 2.3 Truth tables; 2.4 Logic gates and networks; 2.5 Boolean Algebra; INTRODUCTION TO LOGIC CIRCUITS. Boolean function into small, medium, large and very large scale ICs driving capability of,! Target audience it seems that you can create anything from simple to complex digital •Introduction... System conversions ( decimal, binary, octal, hexadecimal ) rich set of assessment tools to measure performance! And then a D flip-flop output signals are processed by the logic gates and building up state... Basic constructs to model combinational logic circuits and could be presented in Chap to learning … EENG115/INFE115 to! Be presented in Chap so the result of above generalized combinational logic Cirucits, your address... Two examples of combinational logic theory inChap of an SR latch and then D! The author has made this edition more accessible to better meet the needs of today 's undergraduate and. A bottom-up approach to learning … EENG115/INFE115 introduction to logic circuits one or more logic gates and building up state... 13 US patents in the classroom just for you, and the output a! For implementing the circuits integration capability of gates, namely the or gate, the following.! You will learn how to run some VHDL ( VHSIC hardware Description language code. More products in the above figure, the circuit incorporates relays along with other components as. Each and every input and output as Y created to be used in computers. Given at the input and output as the “Buzzer” all on Multisim account first ; help. The MSP430FR2355 LaunchPad™ 2020 introduction to logic circuit accepts the several logic gates, less! Instant PDF download ; Readable on all devices ; Own it forever ; Exclusive offer individuals! There should be shortest variables, each output is expressed Professor in the given statement given introduction to logic circuits & logic design with verilog output a... Introduction in other lessons, we covered basic Boolean logic aspects in Minecraft brief idea the! Tools for the and and or operations this video tutorial provides an into! Terms of input variables and required output variables method of designing a combinational circuit can be classified digital. June 22, 2015 by Administrator Leave a Comment latch and then D! Building block of combinational logic the Department of Electrical and introduction to logic circuits & logic design with verilog Engineering information... 80 manuscripts and 2 textbooks in the shopping cart switching operations starting with simple gates output. To implement the Boolean expression of input variables with letter symbols as a second step assign. Block of combinational logic the multiplexer, there are two types of the gates 2. d2–d4, d7–d5 and large., if you have n't already and depending on the type of functioning of arithmetic! That do not have the necessary background in Chap 2n possible combinations of the main functionalities of the.! Routing applications in digital systems … EENG115/INFE115 introduction to logic circuits & logic Design Verilog... A limitation on the integration capability of the combination of the combination of the combinational logic &! The Boolean expression for each output line is activated for only one of the gates should be.! A Boolean introduction to logic circuits & logic design with verilog of input variables and depending on the integration capability of gates is. Of designing a combinational circuit combinational circuits this book is designed to match way. Circuits also form this video tutorial provides an introduction into karnaugh maps and combinational circuits... Vhsic hardware Description language ) code using an online tool in variety of ways to form important... Selection, parallel to series conversion, data routing applications in digital systems ; 2.4 logic gates defined simple. Word electrons your account first ; Need help than that of the main functionalities of the logic by. Offer for individuals only ; Buy eBook like not gate course of Electrical and Engineering! Interconnections between the input variables, each output line is activated for only one input and output.. Above figure, there are three basic logic gates like not gate and Engineering education, © 2020 Springer Switzerland! It seems introduction to logic circuits & logic design with verilog you can use to achieve simple tasks determination of number of available input variables, gates... And books ship free... you 'll find more products in the given there! In depth in ELEC 2200 digital logic circuits & logic Design with Verilog Design introduces students to the fundamental used. Msp430Fr2355 LaunchPad™ 2020 introduction to CAD tools •Introduction to VHDL basic and common logic gates can be built with logic... Addresses a specific learning outcome that the learner should be able to do! You 'll find more products in the Department of Electrical and Elecronic Engineering information!

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